Mondo osnabrück

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Mondo Osnabrück Video

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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the power of the bishops waned before the increasing influence of the chapter, of the military servants or knights of the diocese , and of the town of Osnabrück.

The latter sought to free itself from the bishop's sovereignty, but never became a free city of the empire.

The see was almost continually engaged in warlike troubles and difficulties and had also to defend itself against the Bishops of Minden and Münster.

From the fourteenth century on we meet many auxiliary bishops of Osnabrück, made necessary by the civil duties that absorbed the attention of the ordinary.

He opposed the Reformers strongly and successfully. Franz of Waldeck , also Bishop of Minden , acted, on the contrary, a very doubtful part.

He offered little resistance to Lutheranism in Münster , though he vigorously opposed the Anabaptists ; after he allowed in Osnabrück an evangelical service.

But the chapter and the Dominicans opposed a German service that dispensed with all the characteristics of the Mass.

In Bishop Franz promised to suppress the Reformation in Osnabrück, and to execute the Augsburg "Interim", but fulfilled his promise very indifferently; on his death-bed he received Lutheran communions.

His successor, John IV of Hoya , was more Catholic , but was succeeded by three bishops of a Protestant temper: Under them the Reformation overran nearly the whole diocese.

But he had scarcely begun his work when he died, and left to his successor, Francis of Wartenberg , the task of executing the Counter-Reformation.

The city-council was purified of anti-Catholic elements, and the former Augustinian convent was turned over to the Jesuits. The Edict of Restitution was executed successfully by him, and in he founded a university at Osnabrück.

But in Osnabrück was captured by the Swedes, the university was discontinued, Catholic religious exercises suppressed, and the see administered by the conquerors.

By the Peace of Westphalia , the bishop succeeded in preventing the secularization of the see , as contemplated by the Swedes.

Nevertheless, it was stipulated that henceforth a Catholic and a Protestant bishop of the Augsburg Confession would alternately hold the see.

During the rule of the Protestant bishop , always chosen from the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the spiritual government of the Catholics was committed to the Archbishop of Cologne.

The city was also a member of the Hanseatic League. The city is also known as the birthplace of anti-war novelist Erich-Maria Remarque and painter Felix Nussbaum.

More recently Osnabrück has become well known for its industry. Numerous companies in the automobile, paper, steel and grocery sectors are located in the city and its surrounding area.

Osnabrück was also the home of the largest British garrison outside the United Kingdom. The origin of the name Osnabrück is disputed.

Osnabrück initially developed as a marketplace next to the bishopric founded by Charlemagne , King of the Franks , in Some time prior to , the city became the seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück.

Although the precise date is uncertain, it is likely that Osnabrück is the oldest bishopric in Lower Saxony. In the year Charlemagne was said to have founded the Gymnasium Carolinum in Osnabrück.

This would make it the oldest German Gymnasium school, but the charter date is disputed by historians, some of whom believe it could be a forgery.

In the town was given merchant, customs, and coinage privileges by King Arnulf of Carinthia. Osnabrück was first referred to in records as a "city" in A decade later, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa granted the city fortification privileges Befestigungsrecht.

Most of the towers which were part of the original fortifications are still visible in the city. Osnabrück became a member of the Hanseatic League in the 12th century, as well as a member of the Westphalian Federation of Cities.

The history of the town in the later Middle Ages was recorded in a chronicle by Albert Suho , one of Osnabrück's most important clerics in the 15th century.

From to there was a considerable amount of social unrest and tension in Osnabrück due to the Protestant Reformation , the Thirty Years' War and also witch hunting.

In , during the rule of Mayor Hammacher — , women were executed as alleged witches; most of them were burned alive. In total, women were executed, along with 2 men who had been charged with wizardry.

The first Lutheran services were held in Osnabrück in Over the next century, Lutheranism expanded in the city and several Protestant bishops were elected.

However, the Catholic churches continued to operate, and the city never became completely Lutheran. After the Thirty Years' War broke out, a Catholic bishop was elected in , and the city was occupied by troops of the Catholic League in Peace negotiations took place in Osnabrück and the nearby city of Münster from to Osnabrück was officially recognized as bi-confessional Catholic and Lutheran.

The prince-bishopric would be held alternately by a Catholic bishop and a Lutheran bishop. The Protestant bishop would be selected from the descendants of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg , with priority given to the cadets of what became the House of Hanover.

From , prince-bishop Ernest Augustus , Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg , built the new baroque palace. His son, George I of Great Britain , died in the palace, at the time residence of his younger brother, prince-bishop Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany , on a travel on 11 June In the early 18th century, renowned local jurist and social theorist Justus Möser wrote a highly influential constitutional history of the town, the Osnabrücker Geschichte.

The French Revolutionary Wars brought Prussian troops into the city in , followed by the French in Control of Osnabrück passed to the Electorate of Hanover in during the German Mediatisation , and then briefly to the Kingdom of Prussia in From to the city was part of the Kingdom of Westphalia , after which it passed to the First French Empire.

After , it became part of the Kingdom of Hanover. The town's first railway line was built in , connecting it with Löhne.

Further rail connections appeared over the following decades, connecting Osnabrück with Emden from , Cologne from and Hamburg from Growth of the local economy and population was fuelled by expansion in the engineering and textile industries, with the Hammersen Weaving Mill established in and the Osnabrücker Kupfer- und Drahtwerk metallurgical firm following in Goodbye Munster, Hope to see you again was uploaded and shared by user drshaiful on panoramio.

See you, Munster was uploaded and shared by user drshaiful on panoramio. Sonnenaufgang im Münsterland was uploaded and shared by user Muensterland on panoramio.

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In the Count of Tecklenburg was forced to renounce all jurisdiction over the town of Osnabrück, and the lands of the see , the chapter, and the parish churches.

On the other hand, the bishop and chapter, from the thirteenth century on, spread their jurisdiction over many convents , churches , and hamlets.

Scarcely any other German see freed itself so thoroughly from civil jurisdiction within its territory. The royal prerogatives were transferred little by little to the bishop , e.

Among the prominent medieval bishops are Drogo ; Conrad of Veltberg ; the learned Thietmar or Detmar ; Benno II ; Johann I , who built the actual cathedral in place of the wooden one destroyed by fire in the time of his predecessor; Diethard I was the first bishop elected by the free choice of the cathedral clergy ; Philip II ended the conflicts between his see and the Abbeys of Corvey and Hersfeld; Arnold died a crusader before Akkon.

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the power of the bishops waned before the increasing influence of the chapter, of the military servants or knights of the diocese , and of the town of Osnabrück.

The latter sought to free itself from the bishop's sovereignty, but never became a free city of the empire. The see was almost continually engaged in warlike troubles and difficulties and had also to defend itself against the Bishops of Minden and Münster.

From the fourteenth century on we meet many auxiliary bishops of Osnabrück, made necessary by the civil duties that absorbed the attention of the ordinary.

He opposed the Reformers strongly and successfully. Franz of Waldeck , also Bishop of Minden , acted, on the contrary, a very doubtful part.

He offered little resistance to Lutheranism in Münster , though he vigorously opposed the Anabaptists ; after he allowed in Osnabrück an evangelical service.

But the chapter and the Dominicans opposed a German service that dispensed with all the characteristics of the Mass.

In Bishop Franz promised to suppress the Reformation in Osnabrück, and to execute the Augsburg "Interim", but fulfilled his promise very indifferently; on his death-bed he received Lutheran communions.

His successor, John IV of Hoya , was more Catholic , but was succeeded by three bishops of a Protestant temper: Under them the Reformation overran nearly the whole diocese.

But he had scarcely begun his work when he died, and left to his successor, Francis of Wartenberg , the task of executing the Counter-Reformation.

The city-council was purified of anti-Catholic elements, and the former Augustinian convent was turned over to the Jesuits. The Edict of Restitution was executed successfully by him, and in he founded a university at Osnabrück.

But in Osnabrück was captured by the Swedes, the university was discontinued, Catholic religious exercises suppressed, and the see administered by the conquerors.

By the Peace of Westphalia , the bishop succeeded in preventing the secularization of the see , as contemplated by the Swedes.

Nevertheless, it was stipulated that henceforth a Catholic and a Protestant bishop of the Augsburg Confession would alternately hold the see.

During the rule of the Protestant bishop , always chosen from the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the spiritual government of the Catholics was committed to the Archbishop of Cologne.

Wartenberg was made cardinal in , and was succeeded by the Protestant married "bishop", Ernest Augustus , who transferred the residence to Hanover.

In the see , the chapter, the convents , and the Catholic charitable institutions were finally secularized. The territory of the see passed to Prussia in , to the Kingdom of Westphalia in , to France in , and again to Hanover in Klemens von Gruben, titular Bishop of Paros, was made vicar Apostolic , and as such cared for the spiritual interests of the Catholic population.

This Bull , recognized by the civil authority , promised that, for the present, the Bishop of Hildesheim would be also Bishop of Osnabrück, but had to be represented at Osnabrück by a vicar-general and an auxiliary bishop , and this lasted for thirty years.

Politically, Osnabrück in the s was a stronghold of support for the Social Democrats and the Catholic Centre Party. Following the Nazis' seizure of power in January , Osnabrück was subjected to the implementation of National Socialist economic, political, and social programmes.

These resulted in economic growth for ethnic Germans who did not run afoul of the new regime, and the town went from having over 10, unemployed in early to actually having a labour shortage five years later.

Leading Nazis fled the city and the British appointed a new mayor, Johannes Petermann. However, during the allied occupation of Germany a British military governor, Colonel Geoffrey Day was placed in charge of administering the city.

The British continued to maintain Osnabrück Garrison , a garrison near the city, which at one point was the largest British garrison in the world, housing some 4, troops and employing around local civilians.

After three centuries, the city finally obtained its university when the government of Lower Saxony established the University of Osnabrück in Largest foreign resident groups in Osnabrück as of Nussbaum has been honoured by Osnabrück in the form of a museum designed by Daniel Libeskind which opened in ; it was designed as a scaled-down version of Libeskind's own Jewish Museum in Berlin.

The painter Paul Ehrhardt with his local sujets was more of regional importance. Victory Records and recording artists Waterdown are also based in Osnabrück.

Actress Birgitta Tolksdorf , who became a well-known figure in American television in the s, as well as stage and screen actor Mathias Wieman the recipient of the Justus-Möser-Medaille see German article Justus-Möser-Medaille were also born in the city.

Peter van Pels, the love interest of world-famous diarist Anne Frank , and his parents Auguste van Pels and Hermann van Pels, all hailed from Osnabrück.

Friedrich Clemens Gerke , writer, journalist , musician and pioneer of telegraphy who revised the Morse code in , is another of the city's famous sons.

Gerke's notation is still used today. Fritz Buntrock , born in the city, was an SS officer at Auschwitz concentration camp and was executed for war crimes.

Wilhelm Schitli , also born in the city, was also a Nazi SS concentration camp commandant. Hellmann Worldwide Logistics has its headquarters in the city.

There are two higher education institutions in Osnabrück, University of Osnabrück and Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences with more than 25, students.

All of the types of German grammar schools are represented in the city, including seven Gymnasien. Gymnasium Carolinum claims to be the oldest still existing school in Germany.

Another well-known Gymnasium is the Ursulaschule, a private school, located directly opposite the Carolinum. The city of Osnabrück is connected by road to the A1 , the A30 and the A It shares its airport with Münster.

Osnabrück Hauptbahnhof central railway station is an important rail travel hub. Travellers from the Netherlands heading to either Hamburg , Denmark, or Eastern Europe often have to change here.

An extensive bus network operated by the Stadtwerke Osnabrück public utility provider provides public transportation within the city and the surrounding region.

Osnabrück is twinned with:. Previously Osnabrück had made contact with the British authorities as early as , hoping to find an English twin town and therefore achieve greater understanding with their former enemies in the Second World War.

Unfortunately, this attempt was unsuccessful and Osnabrück did not actively consider the idea again for another quarter-century.

The twinning agreement with Derby was signed on 17 February in the historic Friedenssaal Hall of Peace in Osnabrück's town hall. Every year since then the two towns have exchanged envoys.

Derby also has a square named after Osnabrück in honour of the twinning arrangement; this features an obelisk among other things.

Osnabrück now has eleven twin and friendship cities: Every year, Derby and Osnabrück each appoint an envoy who spends twelve months in their respective twin city.

The envoy's role is varied, but primarily focuses on promoting the exchange of ideas between the two cities, as well as acting as an educational and general information officer to promote awareness of the twinning scheme.

The envoy's specific duties are numerous: The exchange of envoys between two cities is very unusual. No other city in Germany participates in this exchange of envoys, and in Britain, only one other city, Wigan, receives and sends an envoy.

The twinning gives the inhabitants of both places the opportunity to interact with their international neighbours.

Town twinning aims to enhance international understanding and break down social barriers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the former township in eastern Ontario, Canada, see South Stormont.

Names of European cities in different languages: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes, Stand Lebendiges Zentrum im Osnabrücker Land www.

Osnabrück stellt sich vor". Both cities carried the scars o the war, but Osnabrück suffered worse, subjected to the troops of the Catholic League and a forcible Catholicization, and then Swedish war contributions.

Retrieved January 1, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. Retrieved 7 November Retrieved on September 3, KG Elbestrasse 1 D Osnabrueck".

Cities in Germany by population. Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich. Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter.

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